11th Grade Vocabulary
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1. Absolve (v.) to clear from blame, responsibility, or guilt

S: acquit, exonerate, vindicate, excuse, pardon
A: condemn, convict, incriminate, inculpate

2. Caricature (n.) A representation (especially in drawing) in which the subject's characteristic features are deliberately exaggerated
(v.) To present someone or something in a deliberately distorted way

S: cartoon, burlesque, lampoon

3. Clangor (n.) A loud ringing sound
(v.) To make a loud ringing noise

S: din, clamor, uproar
A: silence, stillness, peace and quiet

4. Contiguous (adj.) Side by side, touching; near; adjacent in time

S: abutting, next door to
A: detached, apart, distant, remote

5. Cupidity (n.) An eager desire for something; greed

S: avarice, rapacity, craving, lust
A: contentment

6. Deleterious (adj.) Harmful, injurious

S: detrimental, destructive, pernicious, damaging
A: helpful, beneficial, harmless, innocuous

7. Enhance (v.) To raise to a higher degree; to increase the value or desirability of

S: improve, elevate
A: diminish, degrade

8. Enthrall (v.) To captivate, charm, hold spellbound; to enslave; to imprison

S: fascinate, attract
A: bore to tears, repel

9. Extenuate (v.) To lessen the seriousness or magnitude of an offense by making partial excuses

S: moderate, mitigate, diminish, downplay
A: intensify, magnified, worsen, exacerbate

10. Implicit (adj.) Implied or understood though unexpressed; without doubts or reservations, unquestioning; potentially contained in

S: inferred, tacit, unspoken, unconditional
A: explicit, expressed, stated, revealed

11. Incisive (adj.) Sharp, keen, penetrating (with a suggestion of decisiveness and effectiveness)

S: acute, cutting, perceptive

12. Inimical (adj.) Marked by conspicuous or pretentious display, showy

S: unfriendly, hostile, antagonistic, contrary
A: friendly, hospitable, kind

13. Ostentatious (n.) A model of excellence or perfection

S: flashy, overdone, affected, flamboyant
A: modest, plain, simple, demure, retiring

14. Paragon (v.) To restate in other words
(n.) A statement that presents a given idea in new language

S: ideal, paradigm, model, good example

15. Politic (adj.) Prudent, shrewdly conceived and developed; artful, expedient
S: tactful, diplomatic, judicious, circumspect
A: unwise, injudicious, imprudent, rash

16. Prosaic (adj.) Dull, lacking in distinction and originality; matter-of-fact, straightforward; characteristic of prose, not poetic

S: literal, pedestrian
A: remarkable, poetic

17. Redundant (adj.) Extra, excess, more than is needed; wordy, repetitive; profuse, lush

S: unnecessary, superfluous, verbose, prolix
A: terse, laconic, scarce, inadequate

18. Sanctimonious (adj.) Making a show of virtue or righteousness; hypocritically moralistic or pious, self-righteous, canting, holier-than-thou

A: heartfelt, sincere, humble

19. scintillating (adj., part.) Sparkling, twinkling, exceptionally brilliant (applied to mental or personal qualities)

S: stimulating, glittering
A: dull, boring, insipid

20. Winsome (adj.) Charming, attractive, pleasing (often suggesting a childlike charm and innocence)

S: winning, delightful, prepossessing
A: unattractive, unappealing, repulsive

For a PDF version of this unit, click here:  Unit 12 vocabulary.pdf


1. Abstemious (adj.) moderate, sparing (as in eating and drinking), characterized by abstinence and self-discipline

Syn: Temperate, Sober, Moderate
Ant: Indulgent, Immoderate, Intemperate

2. Censurable (adj.) deserving of blame or correction

Syn: Blameworthy, Discreditable, Reprehensible
Ant: Commendable, Laudable, Meritorious

3. Contingent (adj.) likely but not certain to happen, possible; dependent on uncertain events or conditions; happening by chance; (n.) a representative group forming part of a larger body

Syn:(adj)Conditional, Dependent; (n) A Detachment
Ant:(adj)Independent of, Unconnected with, certain

4. Corroborate (v.) to confirm, make more certain, bolster, substantiate, verify

Syn: Refut, Contradict, Undermine, Discredit

5. Denizen (n.) an inhabitant, resident; one who frequents a place

Syn: Resident, Dweller, Habitue
Ant: Alien, Outsider, Stranger, Foreigner

6. Discursive (adj.) passing aimlessly from one place or subject to another, rambling,roving, nomadic

Syn: Disgressive, Diffuse, Wandering, Episodic
Ant: Short and to the Point, Succinct

7. Disseminate (v.) to scatter or spread widely

Syn: Disperse, Publicize, Broadcast, Circulate
Ant: Bring together, Concentrate, Muster, Conceal, Hide

8. Dowdy (adj.) poorly dressed, shabby; lacking smartness and good taste

Syn: Frumpy, Tacky, Frowsy, Drab
Ant: Chic, Stylish, Elegent, Fashionable

9. Florid (adj.) highly colored, reddish; excessively ornate, showy

Syn:Flushed, Ruddy, Flowery, Frilly, Flamboyant
Ant: Pale, Ashen, Pallid, Sallow, Austere, Stark

10. Foist (v.) to impose by fraud; to pass off as worthy or genuine; to bring about by stealth, dishonesty, or coercion

Syn: Pass off, Palm off, Fob off

11. Gauche (adj.) awkward, lacking in social graces, tactless, clumsy

Syn: Inept, Uncouth, Maladroit
Ant: Adroit, Tactful, Diplomatic, Politic

12. Heresy (n.)an opinion different from accepted belief; the denial of an idea that is generally held sacred

Syn: Unorthodox Belief, Heterodoxy
Ant: Orthodoxy

13. Inculcate (v.) to impress on the mind by repetition, teach persistently and earnestly

Syn: Instill, Implant, Infuse, Ingrain, Imbue
Ant: Efface, Extirpate, Root Out

14. Palpable (adj.) capable of being touched or felt; easily seen, heard, or recognized

Syn: Tangible, Plain, Obvious, Manifest
Ant: Intangible, Insubstantial, Incorporeal

15. Perceptive (adj.) having sympatheric insight or understanding, capable of keen appreciation

Syn: Insightful, Discerning, Observant
Ant: Dense, Thick, Obtuse, Dim-witted

16. Pernicious (adj.) extremely harmful; deadly, fatal

Syn: Injurious, Deleterious, Baleful, Noxious
Ant: Harmless, Innocuous, Salutary, Salubrious

17. Salient (adj.) leaping, jumping, or springing forth; prominent, standing out, conspicuous; (n.) a projection or bulge, a land form that projects upward or outward

Syn: Striking, Notable, Protrusive, Obvious
Ant: Inconspicuous, Recessive

18. Satiate (v.) to satisfy completely; to fill to excess; (adj.) full, satisfied

Syn: Gratify, Cloy, Surfeit, Gorge
Ant: Starve, Deprive Entirely of

19. Sear (v.) to make or become dry and withered; to char or scorch the surface of; to harden or make unfeeling; to patch, dessicate, singe

20. Specious (adj.) deceptive, apparently good or valid but lacking real merit

Syn: Deceptively Plausible, Sophistic, Casuistic
Ant: Valid, Sound, Solid, Genuine

For a PDF version of this unit, click here: Unit 11 vocabulary.pdf


1. Accrue (v.) to grow or accumulate over time; to happen as a natural result

Synonyms: collect, accumulate, proceed from
Antonyms: dwindle, decrease, diminish, lessen

2. Annotation (n.) a critical or explanatory note or comment, especially for a literary work

3. Bedlam (n.) a state or scene of uproar and confusion

Synonyms: commotion, pandemonium, chaos, anarchy
Antonyms: peace and quiet, order, tranquility

4. Covert (adj.) hidden, disguised, purposefully kept secret; sheltered, secluded; (n.) a sheltered place, a hiding place

Synonyms: (adj.) undercover, clandestine, sub-rosa
Antonyms: (adj.) open, overt, undisguised

5. Debonair (adj.) pleasant, courteous, lighthearted; smooth and polished in manner and appearance

Synonyms: carefree, jaunty, gracious, suave, urbane
Antonyms: distraught, agitated, boorish, churlish

6. Dun (v.) to demand insistently, especially in payment of a debt; (n.) a creditor; (adj.) dark, dull, drab, dingy

Synonyms: (v.) hound, pester, harass, nag

7. Efficacious (adj.) effective, producing results

Synonyms: effectual, efficient, potent, powerful
Antonyms: ineffective, worthless, useless

8. Equanimity (n.) calmness, composure, refusal to panic

Synonyms: tranquility, imperturbability
Antonyms: excitability, flappability, agitation

9. Fortuitous (adj.) accidental, occurring by a happy chance

Synonyms: unintentional, unplanned, random, lucky
Antonyms: intentional, deliberate, premeditated

10. Gist (n.) the essential part, main part, or essence

Synonyms: substance, core, nucleus

11. Gratuitous (adj.) freely given; not called for by circumstances, unwarranted

Synonyms: voluntary, unjustified, uncalled-for
Antonyms: justified, warranted

12. Imperious (adj.) overbearing, arrogant; seeking to dominate; pressing, compelling

Synonyms: domineering, magisterial, urgent, imperative
Antonyms: fawning, obsequious, humble, unassuming

13. Invective (n.) a strong denunciation or condemnation; abusive language; (adj.) abusive, vituperative

Synonyms: (n.) vituperation, abuse, diatribe, philippic
Antonyms: (n.) tribute, panegyric, encomium

14. Motley (adj.) showing great variety; composed of different elements or many colors; (n.) a jester's costume; a jester

Synonyms: (adj.) variegated, heterogeneous, diverse; (n.) fool
Antonyms: (adj.) uniform, homogenous, monochromatic

15. Munificent (adj.) extremely generous, lavish

Synonyms: bounteous, liberal
Antonyms: stingy, miserly, tightfisted, parsimonious

16. Procrastinate (v.) to delay, put off until later

Synonyms: stall, temporize, dillydally

17. Provocative (adj.) tending to produce a strong feeling or response; arousing desire or appetite; irritating, annoying

Synonyms: stimulating, arousing, vexing, galling
Antonyms: dull, insipid, bland, unstimulating

18. Recondite (adj.) exceeding ordinary knowledge and understanding

Synonyms: esoteric, arcane, profound, abstruse
Antonyms: simple, uncomplicated

19. Reprobate (n.) a depraved, vicious, or unprincipled person, scoundrel; (adj.) wicked, corrupt, or unprincipled; (v.) to disapprove of, condemn

Synonyms: (n.) scoundrel, blackguard; (adj.) immoral, corrupt
Antonyms: (n.) saint; (adj.) upright, virtuous, moral

20. Sedentary (adj.) characterized by or calling for continued sitting; remaining in one place

Synonyms: seated, stationary, static
Antonyms: active, peripatetic, migratory

For a PDF version of this unit, click here: Unit 10 vocabulary.pdf


1. Abate (v.) to make less in amount, degree, etc.; to subside, become less; to nullify; to deduct, omit

Synonyms: diminish, decrease, subside, let up
Antonyms: intensify, increase, magnify, wax

2. Adulation (n.) praise or flattery that is excessive

Synonyms: adoration, idolization, hero-worship
Antonyms: ridicule, derision, scorn, odium

3. Anathema (n.) an object of intense dislike; a curse or strong denunciation (often used adjectivally without the article)

Synonyms: malediction, imprecation, abomination
Antonyms: benediction, blessing

4. Astute (adj.) shrewd, crafty, showing practical wisdom

Synonyms: shrewd, acute, sagacious, judicious, wily
Antonyms: obtuse, doltish, empty-headed, dumb

5. Avarice (n.) a greedy desire, particularly for wealth

Synonyms: cupidity, rapacity, acquisitiveness

6. Culpable (adj.) deserving blame, worthy of condemnation

Synonyms: guilty, delinquent, peccant, blameworthy
Antonyms: blameless, innocent, laudable, meritorious

7. Dilatory (adj.) tending to delay or procrastinate, not prompt; intended to delay or postpone

Synonyms: stalling, slow, tardy, laggard
Antonyms: prompt, punctual, speedy, expeditious

8. Egregious (adj.) conspicuous, standing out from the mass (used particularly in an unfavorable sense)

Synonyms: glaring, flagrant, blatant
Antonyms: unnoticeable, paltry, piddling

9. Equivocate (v.) to speak or act in a way that allows for more than one interpretation; to be deliberately vague or ambiguous

Synonyms: to talk out of both sides of one's mouth, palter, hedge
Antonyms: to speak one's mind plainly

10. Evanescent (adj.) vanishing, soon passing away; light and airy

Synonyms: ephemeral, transient, transitory
Antonyms: everlasting, immortal, imperishable

11. Irresolute (adj.) unable to make up one's mind, hesitating

Synonyms: indecisive, vacillating, wavering
Antonyms: determined, decisive, unwavering

12. Nebulous (adj.) cloudlike, resembling a cloud; cloudy in color, not transparent; vague, confused, indistinct

Synonyms: hazy, fuzzy, cloudy, vague, murky, opaque, indeterminate
Antonyms: definite, distinct, clear, sharply focused

13. Novice (n.) one who is just a beginner at some activity requiring skill and experience (also used adjectivally)

Synonyms: neophyte, tyro, trainee, apprentice
Antonyms: veteran, past master, pro, expert

14. Penury (n.) extreme poverty; barrenness, insufficiency

Synonyms: destitution, want , indigence
Antonyms: affluence, abundance, luxury, opulence

15. Pretentious (adj.) done for show, striving to make a big impression; claiming merit or position unjustifiably; making demands on one's skill or abilities, ambitious

Synonyms: inflated, ostentatious, affected
Antonyms: unassuming, unaffected, modest

16. Recapitulate (v.) to review a series of facts; to sum up

Synonyms: review, summarize, sum up, go over

17. Resuscitate (v.) to revive, bring back to consciousness or existence

Synonyms: revitalize, reanimate, restore, reactivate

18. Slovenly (adj.) untidy, dirty, careless

Synonyms: unkempt, slatternly, slipshod, lax
Antonyms: neat, tidy, careful, meticulous

19. Supposition (n.) something that is assumed or taken for granted without conclusive evidence

Synonyms: assumption, presumption, hypothesis

20. Torpid (adj.) inactive, sluggish, dull

Synonyms: sluggish, lethargic, otiose, languid
Antonyms: energetic, dynamic, vigorous

For a PDF version of this unit, click here: unit 9 vocabulary.pdf


1. Acrimonious (adj.) stinging, bitter in temper or tone

Synonyms: biting, caustic, rancorous, hostile, peevish
Antonyms: gentle, warm, mild, friendly, cordial

2. Bovine (adj.) resembling a cow or ox; sluggish, unresponsive

Synonyms: stolid, dull, slow, stupid
Antonyms: alert, sharp, bright, keen, quick

3. Consternation (n.) dismay, confusion

Synonyms: shock, amazement, bewilderment, dismay
Antonyms: calm, composure, aplomb

4. Corpulent (adj.) fat; having a large, bulky body

Synonyms: overweight, heavy, obese, stout, portly
Antonyms: slender, lean, spare, gaunt, emaciated

5. Disavow (v.) to deny responsibility for or connection with

Synonyms: disown, disclaim, retract, abjure
Antonyms: acknowledge, admit, grant, certify

6. Dispassionate (adj.) impartial; calm, free from emotion

Synonyms: unbiased, disinterested, cool, detached
Antonyms: committed, engaged, partial, biased

7. Dissension (n.) disagreement, sharp difference of opinion

Synonyms: strife, discord, contention
Antonyms: agreement, accord, harmony

8. Dissipate (v.) to cause to disappear; to scatter, dispel; to spend foolishly, squander; to be extravagant in pursuit of pleasure

Synonyms: disperse, strew, diffuse, waste
Antonyms: gather, collect, conserve, husband

9. Expurgate (v.) to remove objectionable passages or words from a written text; to cleanse, purify

Synonyms: purge, censor, bowdlerize

10. Gauntlet (n.) an armored or protective glove; a challenge; two lines of men armed with weapons with which to beat a person forced to run between them; an ordeal

Synonyms: dare, provocation, trial, punishment

11. Hypothetical (adj.) based on an assumption or guess; used as a provisional or tentative idea to guide or direct investigation

Synonyms: assumed, supposed, conjectural, conditional
Antonyms: actual, real, tested, substantiated

12. Ignoble (adj.) mean, low, base

Synonyms: inferior, unworthy, dishonorable, sordid
Antonyms: admirable, praiseworthy, lofty, noble

13. Impugn (v.) to call into question; to attack as false

Synonyms: challenge, deny, dispute, query, question
Antonyms: confirm, prove, verify, validate

14. Intemperate (adj.) immoderate, lacking in self-control; inclement

Synonyms: excessive, extreme, unrestrained, inordinate
Antonyms: moderate, restrained, cool and collected

15. Odium (n.) hatred, contempt; disgrace or infamy resulting from hateful conduct

Synonyms: abhorrence, opprobrium, shame, ignominy
Antonyms: esteem, admiration, approbation

16. Perfidy (n.) faithlessness, treachery

Synonyms: betrayal, disloyalty, treason, duplicity
Antonyms: faithfulness, loyalty, steadfastness

17. Relegate (v.) to place in a lower position; to assign, refer, turn over; to banish

Synonyms: transfer, consign, demote, exile
Antonyms: promote, elevate, advance, recall

18. Squeamish (adj.) inclined to nausea; easily shocked or upset; excessively fastidious or refined

Synonyms: nauseated, queasy, delicate, oversensitive, priggish

19. Subservient (adj.) subordinate in capacity or role; submissively obedient; serving to promote some end

Synonyms: secondary, servile, obsequious, useful
Antonyms: primary, principal, bossy, domineering

20. Susceptible (adj.) open to; easily influenced; lacking in resistance

Synonyms: vulnerable, receptive, impressionable
Antonyms: resistant, immune
For a PDF version of this unit, click here: Unit 8 vocabulary.pdf


1. Austere (adj.) severe or stern in manner; without adornment or luxury, simple, plain; harsh or sour in flavor
Syn: Forbidding, rigorous, puritanical, ascetic, unadorned, subdued
Ant: Mild, indulgent, luxurious, flamboyant

2. Beneficent (adj.) performing acts of kindness or charity; conferring benefits, doing good
Syn: Humanitarian, magnanimous, charitable
Ant: Selfish, cruel, harmful, deleterious

3. Cadaverous (adj.) pale, gaunt, resembling a corpse
Syn: Corpse-like, wasted, haggard, emaciated, ghastly
Ant: Robust, portly, rosy, the picture of health

4. Concoct (v.) to prepare by combining ingredients, make up (as a dish); to devise, invent, fabricate
Syn: Create, fashion, rustle up

5. Crass (adj.) coarse, unfeeling; stupid
Syn: Crude, vulgar, tasteless, oafish, obtuse
Ant: Refined, elegant, tasteful, oafish, obtuse

6. Debase (v.) to lower in character, quality, or value; to degrade, adulterate; to cause to deteriorate
Syn: Cheapen, corrupt, demean, depreciate
Ant: Elevate, uplift, improve, enhance

7. Desecrate (v.) to commit sacrilege upon, treat irreverently; to contaminate, pollute
Syn: Profane, defile, violate
Ant: Revere, honor, venerate, consecrate

8. Disconcert (v.) to confuse; to disturb the composure of
Syn: Upset, rattle, ruffle, faze, perturb
Ant: Relax, calm, put at ease

9. Grandiose (adj.) grand in an impressive or stately way; marked by pompous affectation or grandeur, absurdly exaggerated
Syn: Majestic, bombastic, highfalutin
Ant: Simple, modest, unaffected, humble

10. Inconsequential (adj.) trifling, unimportant
Syn: Trivial, negligible, petty, paltry
Ant: Important, essential, crucial, vital

11. Infraction (n.) a breaking of a law or obligation
Syn: Violation, transgression, breach, offense

12. Mitigate (v.) to make milder or softer, to moderate in force or intensity
lessen, relieve, alleviate, diminish
Syn: Lessen, relieve, alleviate, diminish
Ant: Aggravate, intensify, irritate, exacerbate

13. Pillage (v.) to rob of goods by open force (as in war), plunder
(n.) the act of looting; booty
Syn: Ravage, sack, loot; booty

14. Prate (v.) to talk a great deal in a foolish or aimless fashion
Syn: Chatter, prattle, blab, blabber, palaver
Ant: Come to the point, not waste words

15. Punctilious (adj.) very careful and exact, attentive to fine points of etiquette or propriety
Syn: Precise, scrupulous, exacting, fussy, finicky
Ant: Careless, negligent, lax, perfunctory

16. Redoubtable (adj.) inspiring fear or awe; illustrious, eminent
Syn: Formidable, fearsome, awesome, august
Ant: Laughable, risible, contemptible

17. Reprove (v.) to find fault with, scold, rebuke
Syn: Chide, chastise, upbraid, reproach
Ant: Praise, commend, laud, pat on the back

18. Restitution (n.) the act of restoring someone or something to the rightful owner or to a former state or position; making good on a loss or damage
Syn: Compensation, reimbursement, redress, restoration

19. Stalwart (adj.) strong and sturdy; brave; resolute
(n.) a brave, strong person; a strong supporter; one who takes an uncompromising position
Syn: Sturdy, stout, intrepid, valiant; mainstay
Ant: Weak, infirm, irresolute, vacillating

20. Vulnerable (adj.) open to attack; capable of being wounded or damaged; unprotected
Syn: Defenseless, exposed, unguarded
Ant: Invincible, protected, safe, secure

For a printed version of these items, click here: Unit 7 Vocabulary.pdf


1. anomalous (adj.) abnormal, irregular, departing from the usual
Syn: exceptional, atypical, unusual, aberrant
Ant: normal regular, customary, typical, ordinary

2. aspersion (n.) a damaging or derogatory statement; the act of slandering or defaming
Syn: innuendo, calumny, denigration
Ant: endorsement, testimonial, praise

3. bizarre (adj.) extremely strange, unusual, atypical
Syn: grotesque, fantastic, outlandish
Ant: normal, typical, ordinary, expected

4. brusque (adj.) abrupt, blunt, with no formalities
Syn: curt, tactless, ungracious, gruff, rough
Ant: gracious, tactful, courteous, diplomatic

5. cajole (v.) to coax, persuade through flattery or artifice; to deceive with soothing thoughts or false promises
Syn: wheedle, inveigle, soft-soap, sweet-talk
Ant: coerce, force, strong-arm

6. castigate (v.) to punish severely; to criticize severely
Syn: chastise, rebuke, censure, upbraid
Ant: reward, honor, praise, laud

7. contrive (v.) to plan with ingenuity, invent; to bring about as the result of a scheme or plan
Syn: think up, devise, concoct, fabricate

8. demagogue (n.) a leader who exploits popular prejudices and false claims and promises in order to gain power
Syn: rabble-rouser, firebrand

9. disabuse (v.) to free from deception or error, set right in ideas or thinking
Syn: undeceive, enlighten, set straight
Ant: deceive, delude, pull wool over one's eyes

10. ennui (n.) weariness and dissatisfaction from lack of occupation or interest, boredom
Syn: languor, world-weariness, listlessness
Ant: enthusiasm, liveliness, excitement, intensity

11. fetter (n.) a chain or shackle placed on the feet (often used in plural); anything that confines or restrains; (v.) to chain or shackle; to render helpless or impotent
Syn: (n.) bond, restraint; (v.) bind, hamper
Ant: (v.) free, liberate, emancipate

12. heinous (adj.) very wicked, offensive, hateful
Syn: evil, odious, abominable, outrageous
Ant: excellent, wonderful, splendid

13. immutable (adj.) not subject to change, constant
Syn: unchangeable, unalterable, fixed, invariable
Ant: changeable, inconstant, variable, fickle

14. insurgent (n.) one who rebels or rises against authority; (adj.) rising in revolt, refusing to accept authority; surging or rushing in or on
Syn: (adj.) revolutionary, rebellious, mutinous
Ant: (adj.) loyalist, loyal, faithful

15. megalomania (n.) a delusion marked by a feeling of power, wealth, talent, etc., far in excess of reality
Syn: delusions of grandeur
Ant: humility, modesty, self-abasement

16. sinecure (n.) a position requiring little or no work; an easy job
Syn: "no-show" job, cushy job, "plum"

17. surreptitious (adj.) stealthy, secret, intended to escape observation; made or accomplished by fraud.
Syn: furtive, covert, clandestine, concealed
Ant: open, rank, aboveboard, overt

18. transgress (v.) to go beyond a limit or boundary; to sin, violate a law
Syn: overstep, exceed, trespass, err
Ant: obey, toe the line

19. transmute (v.) to change from one nature, substance, or form to another.
Syn: transform, convert, translate, metamorphose
Ant: maintain unchanged, preserve

20. vicarious (adj.) performed, suffered, or otherwise experienced by one person in place of another
Syn: surrogate, substitute, imagined, secondhand
Ant: real, actual, firsthand

For a printed version of these items, click here: Unit 6 Vocabulary.pdf


1. Amnesty (n.) a general pardon for an offense against a government; in general, any act of forgiveness or absolution.
SYN: reprieve
ANT: -

2. Autonomy (n.) self-government, political control.
SYN: home rule.
ANT: dependence, subjection.

3. Axiomatic (adj.) self-evident, expressing a universally accepted principle.
SYN: taken for granted.
ANT: questionable, dubious.

4. Blazon (v.) to adorn or embellish; to display conspicuously; to publish or proclaim widely.
SYN: broadcast, trumpet.
ANT: hide, conceal, bury.

5. Caveat (n.) a warning or caution to prevent misunderstanding or discourage behavior.
SYN: admonition, word to the wise.
ANT: -

6. Equitable (adj.) fair, just, embodying principles of justice.
SYN: right, reasonable, evenhanded.
ANT: unjust, unfair, one-sided, disproportionate.

7. Extricate (v.) to free from entanglements or difficulties; to remove with effort.
SYN: disentangle, extract.
ANT: enmesh, entangle.

8. Filch (v.) to steal, especially in a sneaky way and in petty amounts.
SYN: pilfer, purloin, swipe.
ANT: -

9. Flout (v.) to mock, treat with contempt,
SYN: sneer at, snicker at, scorn.
ANT: obey, honor.

10. Fractious (adj.) tending to be troublesome; unruly, quarrelsome, contrary; unpredictable.
SYN: refractory, recalcitrant, peevish.
ANT: docile, tractable, cooperative.

11. Precept (n.) a rule of conduct or action.
SYN: principle, maxim.
ANT: -

12. Salutary (adj.) beneficial, helpful; healthful, wholesome.
SYN: salubrious, curative.
ANT: detrimental, deleterious.

13. Scathing (adj.) bitterly severe, withering; causing great harm.
SYN: searing, harsh, savage.
ANT: bland, mild.

14. Scourge (v.) to whip, punish severely; (n.) a cause of affliction or suffering; a source of severe punishment or criticism.
SYN: (v.) flog, beat; (n.) bane, plague, pestilence.
ANT: (n.) godsend, boon, blessing.

15. Sepulchral (adj.) funeral, typical of the tomb; extremely gloomy or dismal.
SYN: lugubrious, mortuary.
ANT: -

16. Soporific (adj.) tending to cause sleep, relating to sleepiness or lethargy; (n.) something that induces sleep.
SYN: (n.) narcotic, anesthetic.
ANT: (adj.) stimulating; (n.) stimulant, stimulus.

17. Straitlaced (adj.) extremely strict in regard to moral standards and conduct; prudish, puritanical.
SYN: highly conventional, overly strict, stuffy.
ANT: lax, loose, indulgent, permissive, dissolute.

18. Transient (adj.) lasting only a short time, fleeting; (n.) one who stays only a short time.
SYN: (adj.) impermanent, ephemeral, evanescent.
ANT: (adj.) permanent, imperishable, immortal.

19. Unwieldy (adj.) not easily carried, handled, or managed because of size or complexity.
SYN: bulky, clumsy, impractical.
ANT: manageable, easy to handle.

20. Vapid (adj.) dull, uninteresting, tiresome; lacking in sharpness, flavor, liveliness, or force.
SYN: lifeless, colorless.
ANT: zesty, spicy, colorful.

For a printed version of these items, click here: UNIT 5 VOCABULARY.pdf


1. affable (adj.) courteous and pleasant, sociable, easy to speak to
synonyms: genial. amicable, agreeable, cordial
antonyms: surly, cantankerous, dour, inhospitable

2. aggrandize (v.) to increase in greatness, power, or wealth; to build up or intensify; to make appear greater
synonyms: augment, amplify, enhance, exalt
antonyms: reduce, decrease, diminish

3. amorphous (adj.) shapeless, without definite form; of no particular type or character; without organization, unity or cohesion
synonyms: formless. unstructured, nebulous, inchoate
antonyms: definite, well defined, clear cut

4. aura (n.) that which surrounds (as an atmosphere); a distinctive air or personal quality
synonyms: ambience, atmosphere
antonyms: -

5. contraband (n.) illegal traffic, smuggled goods; adj. illegal, prohibited
synonyms: illicit, bootleg, unlawful
antonyms: legal, lawful, illicit

6. erudite (adj.) scholarly, learned, bookish, pedantic
synonyms: profoundly, educated, well read
antonyms: ignorant, uneducated, illiterate

7. gossamer (adj.) thin, light, delicate, insubstantial. n. a very thin, light cloth
synonyms: filmy, diaphanous, sheer, airy, feathery, gauzy
antonyms: thick, dense, sold, massive

8. archetype (n.) an original model on which something was patterned or replicated; the ideal example of a particular type of person or thing
synonyms: model, prototype, epitome
antonyms: -

9. inscrutable (adj.) incapable of being understood; impossible to see through physically
synonyms: impenetrable, incomprehensible, enigmatic
antonyms: comprehensible, intelligible, penetrable

10. insular (adj.) relating to, characteristic of, or situated on an island; narrow or isolated in outlook or experience
synonyms: narrow minded, parochial, provincial
antonyms: catholic, cosmopolitan, liberal

11. irrevocable (adj.) incapable of being changed or called back
synonyms: irreversible, unrecallable, unalterable
antonyms: reversible, changeable

12. propensity (n.) a natural inclination or predilection toward
synonyms: natural bent, proclivity, penchant
antonyms: natural incapacity or inability

13. querulous (adj.) peevish, complaining, fretful
synonyms: petulant, touchy, cranky, irritable
antonyms: uncomplaining, stoical, serene, placid

14. remonstrate (v.) to argue or plead with someone against something, protest against, object to
synonyms: reason against, expostulate
antonyms: -

15. repudiate (v.) to disown, reject, or deny the validity of
synonyms: disavow, abjure, renounce
antonyms: avow, affirm, aver, avouch

16. resilient (adj.) able to return to an original shape or form; able to recover quickly
synonyms: springy, elastic, buoyant, bouncy
antonyms: rigid, stiff, inflexible, unyielding

17. reverberate (v.) to re-echo, resound; to reflect or be reflected repeatedly
synonyms: rumble, thunder, boom, echo

18. scurrilous (adj.) coarsely abusive, vulgar or low (especially in language), foul mouthed
synonyms: obscene, filthy, abusive, vituperative
antonyms: decorous, seemly, tasteful, dignified

19. sedulous (adj.) persistent, showing industry and determination
synonyms: assiduous, tireless. indefatigable
antonyms: lackadaisical, listless, indolent, otiose

20. sleazy ​(adj.) thin or flimsy in texture, cheap; shoddy or inferior in quality or character; ethically low, mean, or disreputable
synonyms: inferior, cheesy, tawdry,tatty
antonyms: superior, first rate, quality, sturdy

For a printed version of these items, click here: Vocabulary Unit 4.pdf


1. Abominate (v.) to have an intense dislike or hatred for.
SYN: loathe, abhor, depose, detest.
ANT: relish, savor, esteem.

2. Acculturation (n.) the modification of the social patterns, traits, or structures of one group or society by contact with those of another; the resultant blend.
SYN: adaptation.
ANT: -

3. Adventitious (adj.) resulting from chance rather than from an inherent cause or character; accidental, not essential; (medical) acquired, not congenital.
SYN: extrinsic, incidental, fortuitous.
ANT: essential, intrinsic, inherent, congenital.

4. Ascribe (v.) to assign or refer to (as a cause or source), attribute.
SYN: impute, credit.
ANT: -

5. Circuitous (adj.) roundabout, not direct.
SYN: indirect, meandering, winding.
ANT: straight, direct, as the crow flies.

6. Commiserate (v.) to sympathize with, have pity or sorrow for, share a feeling of distress.
SYN: feel sorry for, empathize.
ANT: feel no sympathy for.

7. Enjoin (v.) to direct or order; to prescribe a course of action in an authoritative way; to prohibit.
SYN: bid, charge, adjure.
ANT: allow, permit.

8. Expedite (v.) to make easy, cause to progress faster.
SYN: accelerate, facilitate, speed up.
ANT: hinder, hamper, impede, obstruct.

9. Expiate (v.) to make amends, make up for; to avert.
SYN: redeem, make amends for, make reparation.
ANT: -

10. Ferment (n.) a state of great excitement, agitation, or turbulence; (v.) to be in work into such a state; to produce alcohol by chemical action.
SYN: (n.) commotion, turmoil, unrest.
ANT: (n.) peace and quiet, tranquility, placidity.

11. Inadvertent (adj.) resulting from or marked by lack of attention; unintentional, accidental.
SYN: accidental.
ANT: deliberate, intentional.

12. Nominal (adj.) existing in name only, not real; too small to be considered or taken seriously.
SYN: titular, inconsequential.
ANT: actual, exorbitant.

13. Noncommittal (adj.) not decisive or definite; unwilling to take a clear position.
SYN: cagey, uninformative, playing it safe, playing it close to the vest.
ANT: positive, definite, committed.

14. Peculate (v.) to steal something that has been given into one's trust; to take improperly for one's own use.
SYN: defraud, misappropriate.

15. Proclivity (n.) a natural or habitual inclination or tendency (especially of human character or behavior).
SYN: penchant, propensity.
ANT: inability, incapability.

16. Sangfroid (n.) composure or coolness, especially in trying circumstances.
SYN: poise, self-assurance, equanimity.
ANT: excitability, hysteria, flappibility.

17. Seditious (adj.) resistant to lawful authority; having the purpose of overthrowing an established government.
SYN: mutinous, rebellious, subversive.
ANT: supportive, faithful, allegiant.

18. Tenuous (adj.) thin, slender, not dense; lacking clarity or sharpness; of slight importance; lacking a sound basis, poorly supported.
SYN: flimsy, insubstantial, vague, hazy.
ANT: strong, solid, substantial, valid.

19. Vitriolic (adj.) bitter, sarcastic; highly caustic or biting (like strong acid).
SYN: withering, acerbic, mordant.
ANT: bland, saccharine, honeyed, sugary.

20. Wheedle (v.) to use coaxing or flattery to gain some desired end.
SYN: inveigle, soft-soap, sweet-talk.
ANT: coerce, browbeat, intimidate, strong-arm.

For a printed version of these items, click here:  UNIT 3 LEVEL F VOCABULARY.pdf


1. Ameliorate (v.) to improve, make better, correct a flaw or shortcoming.
SYN: amend, better.
ANT: worsen, aggravate, exacerbate.

2. Aplomb (n.) poise, assurance, great self-confidence; perpendicularity.
SYN: composure, self-possession, levelheadedness.
ANT: confusion, embarrassment, abashment.

3. Bombastic (adj.) pompous or overblown in language; full of high-sounding words intended to conceal a lack of ideas.
SYN: inflated, highfalutin, high-flown, pretentious.
ANT: unadorned, simple, plain, austere.

4. Callow (adj.) without experience; immature, not fully developed; lacking sophistication and poise; without feathers.
SYN: green, raw, unfledged, inexperienced.
ANT: mature, grown-up, polished, sophisticated.

5. Drivel (n.) saliva or mucus flowing from the mouth or nose; foolish, aimless talk or thinking; nonsense; (v.) to let saliva flow from the mouth; to utter nonsense or childish twaddle; to waste or fritter away foolishly.
SYN: (n.) balderdash, hogwash, tommyrot; (v.) slaver.
ANT: -

6. Epitome (n.) a summary, condensed account; an instance that represents a larger reality.
SYN: abstract, digest, archetype.
ANT: -

7. Exhort (v.) to urge strongly, advise earnestly.
SYN: entreat, implore, adjure.
AYN: discourage, advise against, deprecate.

8. Ex Officio (adj., adv.) by virtue of holding a certain office.
SYN: -
ANT: -

9. Infringe (v.) to violate, trespass, go beyond recognized bounds.
SYN: encroach, impinge, intrude
AYN: stay in bounds, comply

10. Ingratiate (v.) to make oneself agreeable and thus gain favor or acceptance by others (sometimes used in a critical or derogatory sense).
SYN: cozy up to, curry favor with.
ANT: humiliate oneself.

11. Interloper (n.) one who moves in where he or she is not wanted or has no right to be; an intruder.
SYN: trespasser, meddler, buttinsky.

12. Intrinsic (adj.) belonging to someone or something by its very nature, essential, inherent; originating in a bodily organ or part.
SYN: immanent, organic.
ANT: extrinsic, external, outward.

13. Inveigh (v.) to make a violent attack in words, express strong disapproval.
SYN: rail, harangue, remonstrate.
ANT: acclaim, glorify, extol.

14. Lassitude (n.) weariness of body or mind, lack of energy.
SYN: fatigue, lethargy, torpor, languor.
ANT: energy, vitality, animation, liveliness.

15. Millennium (n.) a period of one thousand years; a period of great joy.
SYN: chiliad, golden age
ANT: doomsday

16. Occult (adj.) secret, hidden from view; not detectable by ordinary means; mysterious, magical, uncanny; (v.) to hide, cover up; eclipse; (n.) matters involving the supernatural.
SYN: (adj.) esoteric, abstruse, arcane.
ANT: (adj.) mundane. common, public, esoteric.

17. Permeate (v.) to spread through, penetrate, soak through.
SYN: -
ANT: -

18. Precipitate (v.) to fall as moisture, to cause or bring about suddenly; to hurl down from a great height; to give distinct form to; (adj.) characterized by excessive haste; (n.) moisture; the product of an action or process.
SYN: (v.) provoke, produce; (adj.) reckless, impetuous.
ANT: (adj.) wary, circumspect.

19. Stringent (adj.) strict. severe; rigorously or urgently binding or compelling; sharp or bitter to the taste.
SYN: stern, rigorous, tough, urgent.
ANT: lenient, mild, lax, permissive.

20. Surmise (v.) to think or believe without certain supporting evidence; to conjecture or guess; (v.) likely idea that lacks definite proof.
SYN: (v.) infer, gather; (n.) inference, presumption.

For a printed version of these items, click here: Vocabulary Unit 2.pdf


1. Approbation (n) the expression of approval or favorable opinion, praise; official approval. 
Synonyms: commendation, sanction 
Antonyms: disapproval, condemnation, censure

2. Assuage (v) to make easier or milder, relieve; to quiet, calm; to put an end to, appease, satisfy, quench 
Synonyms: Mitigate, alleviate, slake, allay 
Antonyms: Intensify, aggravate, exacerbate

3. Coalition (n) a combination, union, or merger for some specific purpose
Synonyms: Alliance, league, federation, combine
Antonyms: Splinter group

4. Decadence (n) decline, decay, or deterioration; a condition or period of decline or decay: excessive self-indulgence
Synonyms: Degeneration, corruption
Antonyms: rise, growth, development, maturation

5. Elicit (v) to draw forth, bring out from some source (such as another person)
Synonyms: call forth, evoke, extract, educe
Antonyms: repress, quash, squelch, stifle

6. Expostulate (v) to attempt to dissuade someone from some course or decision by earnest reasoning
Synonyms: protest, remonstrate, complain

7. Hackneyed (adj) used so often as to lack freshness or originality
Synonyms: banal, trite, commonplace, corny
Antonyms: new, fresh, novel, original

8. Hiatus (n) a gap, opening, break (in the sense of having an element missing)
Synonyms: pause, lacuna
Antonyms: continuity, continuation

9. Innuendo (n) a hint, indirect suggestion, or reference (often in a derogatory sense)
Synonyms: insinuation, intimation
Antonyms: direct statement

10. Intercede (v) to plead on behalf or someone else; to serve as a third party or a go-between in a disagreement
Synonyms: intervene, mediate

11. Jaded (adj) wearied, worn-out, dulled (in the sense of being satiated by excessive indulgence)
Synonyms: sated, surfeited, cloyed
Antonyms: unspoiled, uncloyed

12. Lurid (adj) causing shock, horror or revolution; sensational; pale or sallow in color, terrible or passionate in intensity or lack of restraint
Synonyms:gruesome, gory, grisly, baleful, ghastly 
Antonyms: pleasant, attractive, appealing, wholesome

13. Meritorious (adj)worthy, deserving recognition and praise
Synonyms: praiseworthy, laudable, commendable
Antonyms: blameworthy, reprehensible, discreditable

14. Petulant (adj) peevish, annoyed by trifles, easily irritated and upset
Synonyms: irritable, testy, waspish
Antonyms: even-tempered, placid, serene, amiable

15. Prerogative (n) a special right or privilege; a special quality showing excellence
Synonyms: prerequisite, perk

16. Provincial (adj) pertaining to an outlying area; local; narrow in mind or in outlook, countrified in the sense of being limited and backward; of a simple, plain design that originated in the countryside
(n) a person with a narrow point of view; a person from an outlying area; a soldier from a province or colony
Synonyms: narrow-minded, parochial, insular, naive
Antonyms: cosmopolitan,  broad-minded

17. Simulate (v) to make a pretense of, imitate; to show the outer signs of
Synonyms: feign pretend, affect

18. Transcend (v) to rise above or beyond, exceed
Synonyms: surpass, outstrip

19. Umbrage (n) shade cast by trees; foliage giving shade; and overshadowing influence or power; offense, resentment; a vague suspicion
Synonyms: irritation, pique, annoyance
Antonyms: pleasure, delight satisfaction

20. Unctuous (adj) excessively smooth or smug; trying too hard to give an impression of earnestness, sincerity, or piety; fatty, oily; pliable
Synonyms: mealymouthed, servile, fawning, greasy
Antonyms: gruff, blunt

For a printed version of these terms, click here: Unit 1 level F vocabulary terms.pdf